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Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

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Dimethyltryptamine

Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, (not to be confused with 5-MeO-DMT), is a psychedelic coumpound . DMT is closely related to serotonin, the naturally occurring neurotransmitter that psychedelics affect so widely. DMT is created in small amounts by the human body during normal metabolism[1] by the enzyme Tryptamine-N-methyltransferase.

DMT is present in over 65 species of plants and has been identified as being a normal constituent of human metabolism and an endogenous neurotransmitter in certain rodents. Its presence is also known to be widespread throughout the plant kingdom.[2][3]

Unlike most highly prohibited substances, DMT is not considered to be addictive or toxic by the scientific community.[5][6] Nevertheless, unpredictable adverse reactions such as uncontrollable anxiety, delusions and psychosis can always occur, particularly among those predisposed to mental disorders.[7] While these negative reactions or “bad trips” can often be attributed to user inexperience or improper preparation of set and setting, they have been known to happen spontaneously among even highly experienced users as well. It is therefore highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.

Pharmacology

DMT’s psychedelic effects are believed to come from its efficacy at the 5-HT2A receptor as a partial agonist. However, the role of these interactions and how they result in the psychedelic experience continues to remain elusive. In addition to this, N,N-dimethyltryptamine is believed to be an endogenous ligand for the sigma receptor. However, the significance of the sigma-1 receptor remains the subject of ongoing scientific research.[8]

Subjective effects

Depending on the dosage and method of administration, the effects of DMT can range from mild psychedelic states to powerfully immersive life-altering experiences which are often described as the ultimate displacement from ordinary consciousness in which users report experiencing ineffable spiritual realms or alternate dimensions.[4]

When vaporized or smoked, DMT produces short-lived effects with a very rapid onset that is sometimes described as an “inconceivably high-speed rollercoaster ride.” When ingested in combination with a MAOI or RIMA agent, it becomes active orally and significantly longer lasting, immersive, and interactive in nature: this combination is known as ayahuasca.[5] Ayahuasca brews have been used traditionally in South America for millennia.


Reference:

 

[1]. Barker SA, Monti JA and Christian ST (1981). N,N-Dimethyltryptamine: An endogenous hallucinogen. In International Review of Neurobiology, vol 22, pp. 83-110; Academic Press, Inc.

[2]. Ott, Jonathan (1994). Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangæan Entheogens (1st ed.). Kennewick, WA, USA: Natural Products. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-0-9614234-5-2.

[3]. Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). “DMT is Everywhere”. TiHKAL: The Continuation. United States: Transform Press. p. 277. ISBN 0-9630096-9-9.

[4]. Gallimore, Andrew R.; Strassman, Rick J. (2016). “A Model for the Application of Target-Controlled Intravenous Infusion for a Prolonged Immersive DMT Psychedelic Experience”. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00211

[5]. Nichols, David E. (2016). Barker, Eric L., ed. “Psychedelics”. Pharmacological Reviews. 68 (2): 264–355. doi:10.1124/pr.115.011478

[6]. Lüscher, Christian; Ungless, Mark A. (2006). “The Mechanistic Classification of Addictive Drugs”. PLOS Medicine. 3 (11). doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437.

[7]. Strassmann, Rick (1984). “Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 172 (10): 577–595. doi:10.1097/00005053-198410000-00001 . 

[8].Fontanilla, D.; Johannessen, M.; Hajipour, A. R.; Cozzi, N. V.; Jackson, M. B.; Ruoho, A. E. (2009). “The Hallucinogen N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Is an Endogenous Sigma-1 Receptor Regulator”. Science. 323 (5916): 934–937. doi:10.1126/science.1166127.

[9]. Strassman, Rick J. (1995). “Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine”. Behavioural Brain Research. 73 (1-2): 121–124. doi:10.1016/0166-4328(96)00081-2.

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