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Kundalini and the Sympathetic Nervous System

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Kundalini and the Sympathetic Nervous System

The sympathetic nervous system, the soul ganglia of the ancients, is a series of ganglia connected by intervening cords and extends on each side of the vertebral column from the skull above to the coccyx below. “The sympathetic cords take their rise from a sacred spot above the medulla oblongata called the tridena by the Hindus. * * * From this same spot start the Ida and Pingala, an upper junction of the sympathetic and cerebrospinal axis being thus formed.”  The sympathetic nervous system consists of three great gangliated plexuses or aggregations of nerves and ganglia—the cardaic, solar, and hypogastric—which are situated in front of the spine in the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities respectively. There are also smaller ganglia, in all to the number of twenty-four, which correspond very nearly in number to the vertebrae against which they lie. At the lower end the two cords of the sympathetic system converge as they enter the pelvic and, uniting form a single ganglion which is in front of the coccyx. “The sympathetic system is connected with the Linga Sharira, the Prana, and Kama, more than with Manas. It is played on by the Tantrikas, who call it Shiva’s vina (lute) or Kali’s vine, and is used in Hatha Yoga. Its most important plexus, the solar, is the brain of the stomach, and emotions are felt there, owing to the correspondence with Kama. So psychic clairvoyant perceptions often act at this region, as in the reading of letters, psychometrizing substances, etc.” (H. P. Blavatsky in E. S. Ins.)

In the Arunopanishad are described the important plexuses along the sympathetic cords, which are called chakras, or wheels of force. The chakras are all actually within the physical body, but have not been found by dissection because the forms ascribed to them by Oriental occultists are largely symbolic. Disciples of the higher Mysteries have been warned from the beginning not to attempt the development of these centers according to Hatha Yoga. They are but parts of the illusional universe, and reality no more exists in them than in any other part of the bodily state. In this brief work no attempt will be made to give a detailed analysis of the Yoga and Tantric theories, since between the various Oriental professors of these doctrines there are unbridgeable gulfs of opinion. Probably the most authentic works available on the subject in English are from the pen of Sir John Woodroffe (Arthur Avalon). Some pandits insist that the chakras are along the spine, others that they are in the brain only; again some say that Ida and Pingala are within the spinal cord, others that they are the right and left sympathetic cords. According to some, Kundalini rises in the Sushumna (sixth ventricle), while others maintain that it moves through the pneumogastric nerve. Nor have the different schools themselves come to any complete agreement regarding the number of the chakras, some recognizing five, others six, and still others seven; and particularly with respect to those located in the brain, the hazy analogies to the organs identified by modern science only leave the present confusion worse confounded.

In the picture the symbolic form of the chakras has been carefully preserved, special emphasis being placed upon the correct number of petals. In the secret teachings to each of these petals is assigned a letter of the Sanskrit alphabet. The Yogi is apparently suspended in the air, for the power of sight which would enable one to see the chakras would take no cognizance of the physical earth upon which he is sitting. The plate is, of course, diagrammatic and must not be considered too literally. Study carefully the flower-like centers upon the spinal column. Through the center of the seven flowers passes the tube, Sushumna, on the left of which is the tube called Ida and on the right the tube called Pingala. According to the ancient Brahmans, the Lord of the human race is keyed to the musical note fa and His vibration runs through the Sushumna.

Madame Blavatsky speaks of the Ida and Pingala as the sharp and flat of this central tone. The two latter tubes are profoundly influenced by the nostrils on their respective sides. The Ida, which is “resplendent like the Moon,” and Pingala, which is “resplendent like the Sun,” cross at the base of the skull and both rise out of the four-petalled lotus at the base of the spine. The Ida, Sushumna, and Pingala together are the chief of the Nadis, the Sushumna, “effulgent like the sun, moon, and fire,” being the most important of the three. In the ordinary individual the tube of the Sushumna is closed, but by Yoga it is opened so that there is a direct connection between the sacral plexus at the base of the spine and the pineal gland in the head. “Ida and Pingala are described as playing along the curved wall of the cord containing Sushumna. They are semi-material, positive and negative. They have distinct paths of their own, otherwise they would radiate all over the body. By concentration on Ida and Pingala is generated the sacred fire. * * * Hatha Yoga says the Ida and Pingala act alternately, but if you stop both of these the hot current is forced through the Sushumna. Also without having to do with Ida and Pingala—by practicing Kumbhaka alone—the Sushumna comes into play; but a Raja Yoga, without using either of these methods, has a way of rousing the Kundalini. The means the Raja Yoga employs belong to the mysteries of initiation.”

To paraphrase native writers, that Nadi which takes its origin from the Sahasrara (the brain) and which, growing gradually finer, descends as the central canal of the spinal column, is called the Sushumna.

“There is a very delightful place (the fissure of Sylvius?) where the mouth of the Brahma nerve emits nectar. This place is the junction of the frontal lobe with the temporal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres and is the mouth of the Sushumna nerve.” (Barada Kanta.) Nine sets of smaller Nadis first spring from it and “spread towards the eyes and other organs of sense.” Afterwards from between the vertebrae of the spinal column stretch out thirty-two other sets of Nadis with their innumerable branchlets, which are distributed throughout the body like a network, producing the sense of touch and performing other necessary work requisite for the maintenance of the physical body. “

These Nadis are so fine in their texture that if four hundred of them be collected and tied together, they still cannot be seen by the naked eye; though so fine, still they are like pipes, are hollow, and in this space there exists a certain substance, like oil, in which the Chaitanya [pure Intelligence] reflects; for this reason, the Rishis call the Sushumna the parent of all these smaller Nadis, the Jnana-Nadi, and consider it to be just like a tree with its innumerable branches covering the whole of the human body, the root being upward— at the Sahasrara—and the branches downward.” All outward objects which are cognized by the human senses “are reflected in the Sushumna Nadi, therefore the Rishis call this body the Microcosm.’ For instance, when you see the sun, moon, or stars, you do not actually go near to them in order to see, but you see them because they are reflected in your Sushumna Nadi.” Thus, it is evident that various Nadis spring from the Sushumna, “the receptacle of the Inner Soul of all Jivas,” and extend in all directions throughout the physical body. This system, then, is considered as a huge reversed tree. “Tatva-Jnanins alone are able to walk on every branch of this tree by the help of Prana-Vayu.” (Zoroastrianism, article On the Sun Worship.) “In this human body there exist seventy-two thousand Nadis which admit of sufficient space for entrance into them of Vayu; the Yogis alone become acquainted with the true nature of these Nadis by virtue of their Yoga- Karma. Having closed up the nine portals of the body, and being acquainted with the source and nature of the Nadis that stretch up and down the seats of the several organs of sense, the Jiva, rising to the state of superior knowledge with the aid of the Life-Breath, attains Moksha.” (See the Uttara-Gita.)

Kundalini is a Sanskrit word meaning a serpentine or twisting force or gas. According to the Tantric disciplines, this force can be drawn up through the central spinal canal (Sushumna) and when in its ascent it strikes the brain, it stimulates or opens the spiritual centers of consciousness, thereby consummating the Yogi’s labors toward self-mastery and illumination. Kundalini, also sometimes called “the astral serpent,” is described as a power or energy in the Muladhara. “It has its head in the region of the navel.” It is called serpent-like because of its strange curving motion. “It appears to move around and around in a circle; Ida and Pingala alternate on account of its motion.” As Kundalini ascends, it enters into one spinal chakra after another and incorporates into itself the qualities of these chakras, mastering them and resulting in certain definite extensions of power and sense perception. Upon completing its ascent, it has absorbed into its own essence all the qualitative states through which it has passed, so that the chakras appear as “united into one current,” like beads upon a thread or knots upon a sacred cord.Sheba means “seven” in Hebrew, and one writer has asked the question, Does not the Queen of Sheba represent the Kundalini, the Serpent Queen of the seven chakras? The magicians of Egypt turned their rods into serpents before Pharaoh and Moses threw down his rod also, but it was transformed into a great serpent which swallowed up all the little serpents. Here is a most vivid account of the function of Kundalini. The serpents are the countless Nadis; the great serpent is the spinal fire herself, who is victorious over all the functions of the sensory nerves, so that it is scarcely an exaggeration to say that she devours them. Kundalini is the brazen serpent of Moses which he raised upon the Tau cross in the wilderness, and those who looked upon it did not die from the stings of the little serpents. The Yogi would interpret this to signify that those who would contemplate the mystery of this chief Nadi would escape from the death-dealing stings of the senses. One writer has suggested that the hypothetical eleventh Sephiroth—Daath—placed in the midst of the Sephirotic Tree, was the Cabalistic symbol of Kundalini. But is it not more probable that Shekinah signified this fire? “Where is the way to the Tree of Life?” asks The Zohar, and answers its own question thus: “This is the great Matronecthah (Shekinah). She is the way to the Great Tree, the mighty Tree of Life.” What is the Tree of Life unless it be the spinal column itself? That the Cabalists recognized Shekinah to be some form of electrical force is evident from their statement that the sparks from her are purple. Kundry in Parsifal is also reminiscent of Kundalini and, like this serpent goddess, is dressed in the skins of snakes.

It is said that the Logos, when the time came to create the material universe, entered into a state of deep meditation, centralizing His thought power upon the seven flower-like centers of the seven worlds. Gradually His life force descended from the brain (which was the greater superior world) and, striking these flowers one after the other, gave birth to the lower worlds. When at last His spirit fire struck the lowest center, the physical world was created and His flame was at the base of the world’s spine. When the world returns to Him again and He once more becomes supreme in consciousness, it will be because He withdraws the life from these seven centers, beginning with the lowest, and returns it again to the brain. It necessarily follows that the path of evolution for all living things is to raise this fire, whose descent made every manifestation in this lower world possible and whose “raising” brings them into harmony once more with the superior creation.

At the base of the spine there is a tiny nerve center concerning which little is known by science. The occultist has learned, however, that it contains the mystery of the second crucifixion, which is supposed to have taken place in Egypt and which has reference to the crossing of certain nerves at the base of the spine. The sacred rattlesnake of Mexico, the feathered snake of Kukul-Can, or Quetzalcoatl, is again the serpent spinal fire, and in this respect the rattles, which are carefully reproduced in the carvings of this snake, become of vital significance. Kundalini is coiled in the sacral plexus, where it rests upon the triangular bone at the end of the sacrum. This triangular bone is shown as an inverted triangle in the Muladhara, the four-petalled lotus blossom at the base of the spine. Here Kundalini remains coiled until through certain exercises she is caused to rise through the Sushumna to the brain, where she awakens the activities of the third eye, the pineal gland. This third eye is the link connecting man with the spiritual world or, to be more correct, with the higher spiritual nature of himself. The anthropos, or overman, which never descends into incarnation, was called by the Greeks the Cyclops—the giant who had but one eye, which was the pineal gland, by means of which the higher ego was capable of seeing downward into the human nature and the human ego was capable of seeing upward into Buddhi, or the overman. Kundalini is more or less excited into rising as the result of the directionalization of the essences moving in the Ida and Pingala. Here we have the caduceus of Hermes. The two serpents coiled around the staff are Ida and Pingala. The central staff is Sushumna, the bulb at the upper end of the rod is Sahasrara, and the wings are Ajna—the two-petalled lotus above the bridge of the nose. Among Eastern occultists there is some dispute as to whether the pineal gland is actually the thousand-petalled lotus. Some affirm that it is; others that there is a higher center in the brain to which the term should actually be applied.

“There are seven points,” says Barada Kanta, “where the spinal accessory nerves, Ida and Pingala, meet with the Sushumna nerve. Each of these points is called a lotus.” It is now in order to consider these lotuses, or chakras, from the lowest upward. Says The Arunopanishad: “There is a chakra in which the Kundalini attains her early youth, uttering a low, deep note; a chakra in which she attains her maturity; a chakra in which she becomes fit to marry; a chakra in which she takes a husband, these and whatever happiness is conferred by her, are all due to Agni (Fire).” That division of Yoga called Pranayama is devoted to awakening Kundalini from her coils and causing her to rise upward through the chakras. Each of the five lower centers distributes one of the five forms of Prana, or the broken-up energy of the sun. Each of these seven chakras also has a corresponding tattva, or breath—a motion or condition of spiritual air. Beginning at the base of the spine and working upward, the centers are as follows:

First, Muladhara. A lotus of four petals and letters, connected with Saturn and which corresponds generally with the sacral plexus of modern science. This is a network of nerves lying in the pelvis in front of the concavity of the sacral bone. It is described, in part, as “bright as gold,” with petals the color of the Bigonia indica and containing within it “the quadrangular mundane discus surrounded by eight spears, soft and yellow as the lightning.” Within this discus is deposited the procreative fluid, “decorated with four hands and mounted on the seven-trunked elephant of Indra.” In the center of the quadrangle is the triangular “philoprogenitive discus,” within it the phallus of Shiva, and “fine as the string of the stalk of the lotus plays above this phalus the ‘charmer of the Universe’ (Kundalini).” As the lightning that plays in “new clouds” or as the spiral turnings of a shell, Kundalini “rests over the phallus of Shiva in three and a half circles, as does the sleeping serpent over the head of Shiva, covering with her head the entrance to the Sushumna.” The goddess Dakini, with four arms and blood-red eyes, glorious like twelve suns rising at the same time, but visible only to the pure-minded Yogi,” is also seated in this chakra. Within it also is the air of Kandarpa, “which is capable of passing freely through all the members of the body.” This air is described as the sovereign lord of animals “and glorious like hundreds of millions of suns.”

Kundalini, residing in the Muladhara, “hums like the bee inebriated with the nectar of flowers.” The tattvic power of smell is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it controls the feet. In the Apocalyptic symbolism it is analogous to the Church of Ephesus. “By contemplation upon this chakra,” writes Dr. Vasant G. Rele, “the Yogi obtains freedom from disease, knows the past and the future, and gains all psychic powers.”

Second, Svadhishthana. A lotus of six petals and letters, connected with Jupiter, and which corresponds generally with the prostatic plexus of modern science. This plexus is continued from the lower part of the pelvic plexus. The nerves composing it are of large size and distributed to the prostatic gland, vesiculae seminales, etc. This chakra is described as being directly above the genitals. According to the Hindu writers, it is “at the root of the pudendum virile.” It is red like vermilion and “bright as lightning.” Within this lotus “is the white discus of Varuna (Neptune), in which is the seed,” silvery like the autumnal moon, “having a crescent on its forehead and mounted on a white creature resembling an alligator.” In this chakra also, “blue like a cloud, young, and wearing red cloth, is Hari, holding the four Vedas in his four hands and also Lakshmi.” Within the moon-shaped mandala, or discus, is also the goddess Rakini, her color blue, “holding many weapons in her hands, ready to attack, and wearing many ornaments and apparel.” Say the old Tantric writings: “He who can realize the discus of Varuna in his mind, becomes in a moment free from individual consciousness and, emerging from the darkness of folly, shines like the sun.” The tattvic power of taste is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it controls the hands. In the Apocalyptic symbolism it is analogous to the Church of Pergamos. “By contemplation of this,” writes Dr. Rele, “freedom from death and disease is obtained.”

Third, Manipura. A lotus of ten petals and letters, connected with Mars, and which corresponds generally with the epigastric, or solar, plexus of modern science and the navel. The solar plexus supplies all the viscera in the abdominal cavity. It consists of a great network of nerves and ganglia situated behind the stomach. The semilunar ganglia of the solar plexus—two in number, one on each side—are the largest ganglia in the body. Seven plexuses are derived from the solar plexus: the phrenic plexus, the suprarenal plexus, the renal plexus, the spermatic plexus, the coeliac plexus, the superior mesenteric plexus, and the aortic plexus. This chakra is described as “blue like the clouds” and contains within it the triangular discus of fire and three fire seeds called swastika, which lie outside of the triangle. “Within this lotus the Yogi must then contemplate the four-armed god of fire, bright as the rising sun, riding on a buffalo.” On his lap is a Rudra, “red like vermilion and having three eyes.” The body of “the old red Rudra” is smeared with ashes. “This old Rudra is the creator and destroyer of the universe. With one hand he deals out bounty and with another intrepidity.” Within this lotus is also the four-handed, black-colored goddess Lakini, “who as the Devata of this digestive center is said to be ‘fond of animal food, and whose breasts are ruddy with the blood and fat which drop from Her mouth.’ ” (See The Serpent Power.) Lakini wears many ornaments, “a red cloth, and is mad.” That is, she symbolizes the appetites. The tattvic power of taste is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it controls those of excretion. In the Apocalyptic symbolism it is analogous to the Church of Smyrna. “By contemplation of this chakra,” writes Dr. Rele, “a Yogi is able to enter into another person’s body; he obtains the power of transmuting metals, and of healing the sick, and also of clairvoyance.”

Fourth, Anahata. A lotus of twelve petals and letters, connected with Venus, and which corresponds generally with the cardiac plexus of modern science. This plexus is situated at the base of the heart and is divided into a superficial part lying in the concavity of the arch of the aorta and a deep part lying between the trachea and the aorta. In the Hindu books this chakra is described as “having the brightness of the red Bandhuka flower. Within this flower is the smoke-colored hexagonal air ventricle.” Within this is the essence of air “mounted on a black antelope; its color is smoke and it has four hands.” Within this essence of air is Isha, the Master of the first three chakras, “white as a goose, dealing out bounty and courage with its two hands.” Within this lotus is also the three-eyed Kalkini, “bright as lightning, wearing a necklace of bones and holding in her four hands a snare and a skull.” Within the pericarp of this lotus, “bright as millions of lightnings is a three-eyed Shakti.” Within this Shakti is a gold-colored Shiva, “his head like a full-blown lotus.” According to Arthur Avalon, it is in this place that the Munis (saints) hear that “sound which comes without the striking of any two things together,” which is the Pulse of life. The tattvic power of smell is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it controls the membrum virile. In the Apocalyptic symbolism this chakra is analogous to the Church of Thyatria. “By contemplating this lotus,” writes Dr Rele, “a Yogi becomes clairvoyant and clairaudient, and is able to see adepts moving in the air, and gains the power of traveling at will to any part of the world by the exercise of his volition.”

Fifth, Vishuddha. A lotus of sixteen petals and letters, connected with Mercury, and which corresponds generally with the pharyngeal plexus of modern science. This plexus is formed by branches of the glosso-pharyngeal, pneumogastric, and sympathetic nerves, which supply the muscles and mucous membrane of the pharynx, etc. The Hindus describe this chakra as in the guttural region, “a smoky lotus,” having within it a circular ethereal region “bright as the full moon.” This ether is the essence of Akasha, which is robed in white and represented as mounted on a white elephant. The Siddhis say that “within this ethereal region (which is represented as holding a snare, a hook, benediction, and intrepidity in its four hands) is a five-faced, three-eyed, ten-handed Shiva wearing a tiger skin.” There is also the goddess Shakini. Her color is red and she is robed in white garments. “Within the pericarp of this lotus is a spotless disc of the moon, which is the vestibule of final emancipation.” The tattvic power of hearing is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it controls the mouth. In the Apocalyptic symbolism it is analogous to the Church of Sardis. “By contemplating this lotus,” writes Dr. Rele, “the whole body is purified of diseases and complaints, and a Yogi is able to live for one thousand years in eternal youth; in fact, he is dead to all the outer worlds and becomes absorbed in his inner life.”

Sixth, Ajna. A lotus of two petals and letters, connected with the moon, and which corresponds generally with the cavernous plexus of the brain. This plexus is located in the skull on each side of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone, at a point somewhat below the bridge of the nose and behind the face. According to the Uttara-Gita, “between the eyebrows is situated a lotus called Ajna, having two petals. … It is silvery like the moonbeams and is the place of communion of Yogis. Within this cell is a six-headed goddess named Hakini of the color of moonbeams; she holds in her four hands books, a skull, a musical instrument, and a rosary.” According to the commentary, in this chakra is situated the mind, and in its pericarp is the “inverted triangle or yoni, and the phallus of Shiva, called ltara Linga!’ This symbol of Shiva is “bright as electricity.” By it is illumined “the minds of men,” and it is the primordial symbol of the Vedas— “OM.” At the extremity of this cell, “a little above the eyebrows is the seat of the intellect, above the intellect is a crescent, above which is a dot, and near it (the dot) is a Shiva bright as the moon.” The seat of the universal infinite Spirit, Knower and Seer of all, “is in the brain (at the mouth of the Sushumna nerve where the two brains meet, and over it the Brahmans keep a long braid of hair).” According to the disciplines, the Yogi “must carry his intellect to that point, where his luminosity excels the sun, the moon, and the fire.” (The sun, moon, and fire here represent Pingala, Ida, and Sushumna, which have converged.) The Ajna shines with the glory of Dhyana (meditation). The tattvic power or quality of thought is associated with this chakra, and of the organs of action it is occasionally identified with the mind. In the Apocalyptic symbolism it is analogous to the Church of Philadelphia. “By contemplation of this (chakra),” writes Dr. Rele, “a Yogi gains most wonderful powers. This chakra is called the plexus of command.”

Seventh, Sahasrara. A lotus of a “thousand petals” and connected with the sun. It is very difficult to associate this chakra with any part or organ known to Western science. Some writers have attempted to identify it with the pineal gland, others with the higher brain ventricles, and still others with nerve centers in the upper part of the cerebral hemispheres. The Shatchakra Nirupana describes the Sahasrara as a lotus of a thousand petals either in or pertaining to the nature of a vacuum. The lotus is lustrous and “whiter than the full moon,” and “has its head turned downward.” A great effulgency pervades this lotus. “Within this effulgence is a triangle bright as electricity wherein is a very secret vacuum adored by the immortals.” In this vacant place dwells the great Shiva, whose form is akashic and “who is the destroyer of ignorance and illusion.” There is a phase of the moon in this chakra, “like the roseate sun of the morning, possessed of sixteen attributes and as fine as the hundredth part of the string of a stalk of the lotus.” Within this phase of the moon is another phase called Nirvana, “as fine as the thousandth part of the human hair and as luminous as twelve suns. Its form is crescent-like and its luminosity is not always visible. It appears and disappears from time to time.” Within this “dwells the force called Nirvana, whose effulgence transcends tens of millions of suns. She is as fine as the ten-millionth part of the human hair. She is the mother of the three universes and from her is incessantly flowing the nectar of life.” It is within this Nirvanic force, according to the Tantrics, that Shiva is seated, “who is pure and eternal and accessible to deep meditation.” Both the tattvic power and the organ of action for this chakra are spiritual and beyond analysis. In the Apocalyptic symbolism, it is analogous to the Church of Laodicea. When by the disciplines of Yogi Kundalini reaches this point, the adept is said to be in “seedless Samadhi, by which he gets in tune with the Infinite and is freed from rebirth.” (Dr. Relc.)

The passage of Kundalini upward towards Sahasrara is marked by gentle warmth. As it rises, the lower part of the body becomes cold and only the crown of the head retains warmth and pulse. This condition is also accompanied by other phenomena, but woe to the unhappy mortal who raises Kundalini prematurely to the brain! The sting of the fiery serpent is most deadly, as those know who have witnessed the results of her being raised before her time. She will burn her way to the brain and destroy the rational qualities of the mind. This spiritual, twisting force is not an illumining agent but, like the serpent which is its symbol, can prove a deadly poison. Hints of Eastern occultism are constantly being brought to the Western world, but in too many cases disaster has resulted. When esoteric knowledge or doctrine is committed to individuals incapable of understanding and rightly using it, the forces liberated by such discipline are almost certain to result in tragedy. The warning cannot be too strongly emphasized that, while the study of the Yoga and Tantric doctrines will acquaint the student with many useful secrets concerning the mysteries of Nature and the constitution of man, the practices of these cults should be limited to those who have identified themselves utterly with East Indian systems of living and thought and who have placed themselves under the instruction of a properly qualified East Indian teacher. It is well that all should know the theories of occultism, but woe to foolish mortals who attempt esoteric practices without proper preparation, instruction, and guidance!

Disciples of the Mysteries have been warned for centuries not to attempt the development of the chakras of the sympathetic cord according to Hatha Yoga. These chakras are too closely connected with the illusional world. The real plexuses which the disciple of the higher knowledge should strive to unfold are the true soul ganglia within the brain (the master chakras). The body is a negative pole and its own positive parts are contained within the cranial cavity. As the body is controlled by the brain, so the enlightened neophyte should work with the brain, avoiding the negative poles of the brain centers located along the spine. Proper development of the seven brain discs, or spiritual interpenetrating globes, results in the awakening of the spinal flowers by an indirect process. Beware of the direct process of concentrating upon or directionalizing the internal breath towards the spinal centers. The breath of true Raja Yoga is not an air moving in the body, but is the will itself.




[X]. Manly P. Hall. Man: The Grand Symbol of the Mysteries Essays in Occult Anatomy, ISBN 13: 9781578988488.

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